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Projeto Observacional para 2016B - SO2016B-004

Autor: Oscar Cavichia
Instituição: IAG
e-mail: cavichia@astro.iag.usp.br

Enos Picazzio
Igor V. Lukyanuk
Alessandra V. Ivanova
S.M. Andrievsky
Amaury A. de Almeida

Título: Small Solar System Bodies with Orbits beyond Neptune

Resumo: Small bodies with orbits beyond that of Neptune are of interest because they must have undergone minimal changes since the Solar System formation. The equilibrium temperature (<=140 K) at these distances is too low to ensure a significant level of physical activity caused by the sublimation of water ice. As of today, the active centaur 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1 is still the most interesting and studied distant object. The key issues which are to be solved in this study are as follows:(1) can the comets which are active at large distances be formed in the regions with local elementary compositions different from those ones in traditional comets and other centaurs? (2) Do the physical properties of the nuclei of active comets and active centaurs agree with each other? (3) Which gas drives the matter outflow from the cometary nuclei? (4) What is the scenario for the lifetime of this gas in the cometary nucleus? (5) What are the mechanisms of the gas outflow? (6) What is the origin and what are the properties of dust particles which form tails and comas of the target objects?